UNDP examined the impact of different environmental scenarios on the number of people living in extreme poverty. In many countries in Africa, there is already an ongoing transition from agriculture straight to services – but mostly low-paying services, often in the informal economy. However, he added that during the same period the absolute number living in poverty remained constant at 1.23 billion, while world GDP rose by over 50%. Keynote speaker Kanchan Chopra stressed the need for empowerment of people at the local level in order to achieve poverty reduction. A BRIEF HISTORY OF POVERTY ALLEVIATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES. Electronic versions of Sustainable Developments are sent to e-mail distribution lists (ASCII and PDF format) and can be found on the Linkages WWW-server at http://enb.iisd.org/. China has made remarkable progress in reducing poverty since the 1990s, inspiring countries around the world. He emphasized the need to ensure that all key stakeholders are identified and involved. It is an honor to join you today. He supported further development of natural capital indicators, as well as guidelines for evaluating policies and programmes with respect to natural capital and poverty. It is vulnerable to shocks and crises, be it economic crises, disasters caused by natural hazards, the impacts of climate change, disease outbreaks, and conflicts. Introducing the concept of social capital – the networks and relationships that shape the quality and quantity of social interactions in a society – she said it adds a new dimension to the dialogue on development and noted that considering only traditional institutions does not suffice when grappling with the problems of development. Keeping People out of Poverty: Managing Risk That is why the UN Secretary-General has put conflict prevention at the core of his priorities. Yet, over the last decade or so, we have seen a breakdown in the relationship between increases in labor productivity and improvements in the earnings of a median household. He stated that the ongoing deterioration and destruction of natural ecosystems is a barrier to tackling poverty and achieving sustainable development. He stressed that renewed interest in poverty alleviation should not create an "either/or" approach whereby such work takes priority over sustainable development, and highlighted that genuine development is by definition sustainable. And recognizing that, despite this progress, there are still millions of people living in poverty, the country is devoting additional resources and policy focus to take even further the poverty alleviation efforts. POVERTY ALLEVIATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: IMPLICATIONS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF NATURAL CAPITAL: Keynote speech: Anil Markandya, University of Bath/World Bank, delivered the keynote speech on this issue. For the last two years, with economic conditions deteriorating, in part due to the decrease in commodity prices, it is estimated that the net number of people living in poverty increased by 1.4 million a year. Just to give examples from gender gaps in labour markets, in some regions, the unemployment rate of women is more than double that of men. She also called for consideration of how to link PRSPs and the sustainable development framework, suggesting that IISD should provide balanced policy advice on PRSPs. He emphasized the need to build trust and capacity among people at the village level, and said sustainable development is a simple concept that encompasses efficient resource use, equity, environmental harmony and empowerment, and supported the concept of sustainable livelihoods as an effective operational approach. Pointing to divides among the poor and the need for security at the community level, he stressed that participation and ownership are difficult to achieve. He cautioned against a focus within the PRSP process on short-term goals, as they may distort long-term investments needed for sustainable development and crowd out other investments. Addressing multidimensional poverty, implies reaching the last mile of exclusion, those living in remote communities, largely disconnected from society or belong to marginalized groups facing multiple, compounding sources of social and economic discrimination, plunging them in a vicious cycle that perpetuates exclusions over generations. He said there is a lack of evidence to support the view that an increase in poverty always results in further environmental degradation. He called for further consideration of why poverty levels have declined so significantly in that region. The Director of IISD Reporting Services (including Sustainable Developments) is Langston James "Kimo" Goree VI [email protected]. WORLD ECONOMIC FORUM ANNUAL MEETING: The 2001 annual meeting of the World Economic Forum is scheduled for 25-30 January 2001 in Davos, Switzerland. To sum up, eradicating and ensuing that no one is left behind demands that we consider three key aspects. Panelist’s comments: Workshop panelist Keith Bezanson, Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex, UK, noted the need to draw historical lessons when considering PRSPs and sustainable development. The authors can be contacted at their electronic mail addresses and at tel: +1-212-644-0204. On the first case study, regarding a project focused on social capital for sustainable development in a poor rural community in Eastern India, she said the project led to the pooling of land and water resources to achieve an appropriate scale for development. Poverty alleviation strategies. Roy Culpeper noted participants’ statements that each country is unique and has its own individual circumstances. That is why the central pledge of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is the aspiration of “Leaving no one behind.” Unlike the MDGs, when the target was to reduce poverty by half, the objective now is to eradicate poverty all together by 2030 – as expressed in the Sustainable Development Goal 1. This would be the consequence of two interrelated factors. He drew attention to several upcoming high-level meetings, including the Summit of the Americas, the G-8 meeting, the Ten Year Review of the UN Conference on Environment and Development, the OECD Development Assistance Committee and the Financing for Development initiative. Regarding donor coordination, he said it is not always positive. He concluded by stressing the need to mainstream poverty and environmental issues in day-to-day economic decision-making, as well as to include poverty issues in environmental policy making and vice-versa. Early industrializers (countries like Italy, Germany, or Japan) had at the peak of their manufacturing phase about 70% of employment in manufacturing. The special theme for the 35th Session, to be held in 2002, will be "Reproductive rights and reproductive health, with special reference to HIV/AIDS." He said the workshop should not necessarily seek consensus, but should identify key issues, possible solutions or approaches and act as a catalyst for discussions and dialogue. She said social entrepreneurs bring together different forms of capital that can result in successful experiences on the ground and cited the example of micro-finance initiatives in Bangladesh. She said this resulted in higher incomes and less out-migration. Following this, panelists Keith Bezanson and Roy Culpeper offered closing remarks and CIDA President Len Good presented his observations on the workshop. An important way to ‘govern the borders’ is the development of model villages. Highlighting three cases in poverty alleviation at the grassroots level and their links to sustainable development, she said a "reaching out between agents" across traditional sectors in the context of creating development processes can result in successful outcomes. He applauded the current international development targets as a useful way to focus the agenda, even if they may be difficult to achieve. Discussion: In the ensuing discussion, one participant commented on the need to take community priorities as the starting point for poverty alleviation and sustainable development initiatives and to build on local traditions. The costs of conflict are staggering, paid in lives lost, in absence of growth, and increases in forced displacement. CIDA President Len Good emphasized three points: the need for a new relationship between developed and developing countries, because their agendas are converging and all major issues are now global; the need to recognize that the principles of aid are not yet being universally embraced or realized; and the importance of retaining both sector-wide strategies and grassroots level implementation that serve to complement one another. Since 1990, the total number of people in extreme poverty fell by more than 1.1 billion, and MDG 1 (reducing poverty rate by half between 1990 and 2015) was fully met ahead of scheduled. He suggested this might be due to a focus on health indicators and the complexity of the rural poverty/ natural resource management nexus, which involves context-specific and situational factors. The Preparatory Committee is scheduled to meet in New York from 12-23 February and 30 April - 11 May in 2001, and from 14-25 January 2002. He further stated that a significant amount of time needs to be devoted to the development of PRSPs, and the current time pressure on the process falls short in terms of supporting local capacity and participation. He supported these steps and the economic management reforms proposed by Stiglitz as effective ways to move forward. The e-conference, which began earlier in January and would continue into February, was facilitated by IISD and involved about 750 participants. On the role of the private sector, she said it can support sustainable development if success is measured in a multidimensional way. Second, we cannot assume that development and the path towards poverty eradication is steady – it will be beset by volatility, by bumps, by shocks, which call for sustained attention to risk-informed approaches to poverty reduction. He said the prevailing economic model puts pressure on governments to cut back on policies for poverty reduction and investment in social and environmental issues. POVERTY REDUCTION STRATEGY PAPERS AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT: Keynote speech: Daniel Morrow, Lead Adviser, Poverty Reduction Strategy Program, World Bank, highlighted the 1999 Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSP) approach, developed by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, to provide development assistance to low-income countries. Thousands of new business initiatives, development institution programs, and innovative investment funds focused on poverty alleviation have emerged during this time. He added that there is a need to refocus development strategies on key basic economic infrastructure. He said this workshop aimed to explore the case for using a sustainable development framework in addressing poverty alleviation. He also noted the need to introduce the poverty dimension in negotiations on international environmental issues such as climate change and biodiversity. One participant noted that ministries of environment and non-governmental organizations will become marginalized in the process by finance ministries. In this lecture, Stiglitz called for a major change in strategy that emphasizes development as a transformation of society. He said studies by the World Bank Environment Department had found very limited inclusion of considerations relating to natural resource management and environment in the I-PRSPs submitted to date. On the PRSP process, he said it is too early to evaluate it, but care should be taken to ensure that civil society has a say in how the process moves forward. The Brundtland report defined this concept as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. Globally, extreme poverty rates are at an all-time low. In the 1950s and 1960s, efforts often involved investments in large-scale physical infrastructure projects, while in the 1970s the focus shifted to the development of human capital. He suggested revisiting an idea developed by the Nordic states of a compact between recipients and donors around an agreed set of policies. Box 30030, Nairobi, Kenya; tel: +254-2-62-1234; fax: +254-2-62-4266/ 67; Internet: http://www.unchs.org/, 39TH SESSION OF THE UN COMMISSION FOR SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT: This meeting will take place from 13-23 February 2001 in New York. Participants also highlighted: the need for community participation; the importance of tailoring solutions to meet specific local needs; the harmful consequences of the rise in military conflicts and the need for stability in tackling poverty; the benefit of a strong judicial system in ensuring good governance; the positive experience of using micro-financing to allow those in poverty to become agents for change; the negative role of donor coordination, which one speaker described as a "self-serving club"; and the need to increase the capacity within developing countries to deal with aid coordination. One speaker said the focus under the PRSPs should be on processes by which governments include other institutions, cautioning that governments have their own objectives that are not compatible with a bottom-up approach. the necessary. These groups of countries are vulnerable in part because of their narrow and shallow productive capacities, limited trade products and partners, economic concentration on a few sectors, and vulnerability to the effects of climate change. More information is available online at: http://www.un.org/rio%2b10/. Sinopec's Fixed-point Poverty Alleviation and Pairing Program Lifts Eight Counties Out of Poverty in Response to UN Sustainable Development Goals … He concluded that the literature does demonstrate some linkages, but that the connections are complex and that some commonly held views are not proven. She stressed the role of the international donor community and local non-governmental organizations as brokers in the vertical integration between the micro- and macro-levels and said elements enabling scaling-up should be built into demonstration projects. Under a severe “environmental disaster” scenario, which envisions vast deforestation and land degradation, dramatic declines in biodiversity and accelerated extreme weather events, some 2.7 billion more people would live in extreme poverty than under the “base case” scenario – basically, a linear projection of current poverty reduction trends. This meeting will be held ten years after the World Summit for Children. He questioned whether growth is a sufficient condition for poverty reduction, stressing other factors such as distribution. As long as we are committed to respect their integrated and indivisible nature, the pursuit of the Sustainable Development Goals will “transform our world” and should enable us, for the first time in history, to eradicate poverty. Reviewing the literature on real wealth and sustainable development, Anil Markandya said indicators need to look at the trends in all types of capital, including human and natural capital. She said the case study involved giving a community user rights to upstream forest land and making the community responsible for its protection. The priority attributed to prevention by the UN Secretary-General reflects the spirit of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which reads, in part: “[w]e are determined to foster peaceful, just and inclusive societies which are free from fear and violence. Noting that poverty is situation-specific, she suggested IISD might undertake analyses to create a typology of situations in which specific policies and economic instruments work effectively. He said these principles require a comprehensive model, and that PRSPs are one instrument for implementing them. Poverty alleviation is an essential step in the direction of defending the humanity's dignity and it is the prerequisite for creating development perspectives for the “damned of the earth,” which now number about a billion, when speaking about extreme poverty. On the second case study focusing on breaking the link between environmental degradation and migration in a community in Western India, she outlined an initiative to create property rights to common resources. The Education Challenge (Bernardo Rivera and A.F. For more information contact: Financing for Development Coordinating Secretariat, United Nations Headquarters, New York, Harris Gleckman, tel: +1-212-963-4690; e-mail: [email protected] or Federica Pietracci, tel: +1-212-963-8497; e-mail: [email protected]; Internet: http://www.un.org/esa/ffd, WORLD SUMMIT ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (RIO+10): This UN Summit for the 10-year review of progress in implementing the outcome of the UN Conference on Environment and Development will take place in Johannesburg, South Africa in 2002. Technological change, especially in robotics and artificial intelligence, is providing a wide variety of options to automate industrial production and the delivery of a range of services (driverless cars may be around the corner; restaurants and shops increasingly carry the option to order by touchscreen and retail hubs are disappearing due to on-line shopping). Keynote speaker Anil Markandya called for a focus on what external agencies can do to link poverty alleviation and sustainable development, while noting that there are no "magic solutions." Abstract Nature-based tourism (NBT) plays an important role in sustainable development. The labor market channel, in particular, will be critical to generate sustained income to bring people out, and to keep them out, of poverty. cating poverty within a sustainable development framework as spelt out in Agenda 21, the document adopted in that year by the Earth summit in Rio de J aneiro . He stressed that conditionality has not been eliminated, as funds will be transferred only under credible PRSPs and governments will be held accountable to undertakings contained in PRSPs. In many developing countries, this was linked to increasing commodity prices, with benefits accumulating at the top. He noted Stiglitz’s call for a greater focus on culture and institutional development, with attention paid to stakeholders – the individual, family and community, as well as the public and private sectors. In the workshop’s final session, keynote speakers Kanchan Chopra and Anil Markandya reviewed some of the issues raised during the workshop. As of now, 67 Sinopec affiliated enterprises are carrying out supporting projects in 709 villages, with a total of 1,945 staff members fighting on the frontline of poverty alleviation. Betancourth) 145 Social construction of Knowledge: a … A BRIEF HISTORY OF POVERTY ALLEVIATION AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT STRATEGIES Widespread poverty is an enduring problem and poverty alleviation has been a key component in development strategies over the past 50 years. For more information contact: Secretariat for the Special Session on Children, UNICEF House, 3 UN Plaza, New York NY 10017, USA; Internet: http://www.unicef.org/specialsession/, HIGH-LEVEL INTERNATIONAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL EVENT ON FINANCING FOR DEVELOPMENT: This high-level international meeting on Financing for Development will be held in February/March 2002. For instance, the centrality of peace to sustainable development and poverty reduction is one of hallmarks of the Sustainable Development Goals, and it marks a sharp contrast to the MDGs. China is also leveraging its experience internationally. The idea of social capital – comprised of both formal and informal institutions and interactions – was a major component of his approach. The 36th Session in 2003 will focus on "Population education and development." She said policy implications could be drawn from the case studies, emphasizing that sustainable development should not be approached from a macro-level perspective, but should be based on micro-interventions. He highlighted the need to understand better the process of adaptation of institutions to cope with such changes, and suggested there are common grounds with Stiglitz’s proposed strategy for development. On ownership of development processes, he said it is a dynamic and complex issue, and questioned whether it is realistic to assume ownership in urban areas and at the national level. He noted that poverty is a wider concept than just lack of income, and stressed local conditions relating to rights to resources and participation in decision-making as vital to poverty alleviation. On the third case study focusing on livelihood/common property linkages in the context of soil conservation and water management in Northern India, she stressed the need to look at the totality of a system. For more information contact: Axumite Gebre-Egziabher, Coordinator, Istanbul+ 5, UN Centre for Human Settlements, Nairobi, Kenya; tel: +254-2-623-831; e-mail: [email protected]; Internet: http://www.istanbul5.org/meetings/, SPECIAL SESSION OF THE UN GENERAL ASSEMBLY ON CHILDREN: The Special Session of the United Nations General Assembly on Children will take place from 19-21 September 2001 at UN Headquarters in New York. The developing countries have been criticized for their inability toreduce poverty and contribute to sustainable agricultural development. Since the late 1990s, the typical family in several developed countries has not shared in the gains of expanding economies. Therefore, it is especially critical is the need to create decent jobs and opportunities for the world’s largest ever generation of young people. On how to implement the PRSP approach, he identified the need to find a balance between speed of implementation and quality of the strategy papers as one challenge, noting the need for low-income countries to develop sufficient social capital for implementation as well as incentives for countries to move quickly in order to achieve interim debt relief under the Highly Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) initiative. He stressed that the programme should not be judged based on the preliminary reports and first impressions. It is essential for poverty eradication since global poverty is overwhelmingly rural. Excerpts from Sustainable Developments may be used in other publications with appropriate academic citation. 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